When I first started developing training, I needed a checklist or model to help ensure I had fully prepared and wasn’t missing anything important. This need led me to ADDIE; I have used the ADDIE model for years and it provides structure for my training.
The ADDIE model is a framework used within the field of instructional design to guide the creation of instruction. The framework is comprised of five core components: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Each of the five components are a different stage of the design process that helps guide development.
More specifically, “the ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases—Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation—represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools” (“ADDIE model,” n.d.).
Why Use ADDIE?
This model is used extensively by instructional designers and other educators. In fact, many other instructional design models are variations of the ADDIE model. Expected skills for special librarians include training, yet often librarians are asked to create sessions without any guidance or background in education. The clearly defined stages of ADDIE help facilitate the creation of effective training.
The Stages of ADDIE
Analyze: In the analysis phase, focus on the trainees. Consider the learning environment and learners’ pre-existing knowledge of the topic is noted. Ask and answer questions such as:
- Who are the people I will be training?
- What do they need to know?
- What do they already know?
- Where will this training take place?
- Does the location of the training pose any unique challenges?
Design: In the design phase, focus on the goals for the training. Identify learning outcomes and consider materials you will need. Ask and answer questions such as:
- What are the specific goals for the training?
- What will I do in the training?
- What will the trainees do?
- What materials do I need?
- How long will I spend on each training component?
Development: In the development stage, focus on creating the material needed to conduct the training. Ask and answer questions such as:
- Does the material fit in the timeframe mapped out?
- Does the material meet the learning goals?
- Will trainees know what to do with the material?
Implement: In the implementation stage, focus on teaching the material to facilitators and a test group of trainees, while refining and editing as necessary. You can also launch the training on a small-scale. Ask and answer questions such as:
- How do trainees react to the material?
- Does the material make sense to other facilitators?
- Are contingencies in place in case of technology failure?
- What needs to be modified?
Evaluation: In the evaluation stage, focus on whether or not the training met your original goals. This can be done in two parts. First, there is formative assessment which is conducted throughout the lesson. The purpose of formative assessment is to gauge whether or not trainees are grasping content during the lesson. Second, summative assessment is conducted at the end of the lesson to see how much the trainees learned. Ask and answer questions such as:
- What data matters?
- What data do I need to collect?
- How am I collecting data?
- What do I need to modify based on the data I received?
Librarians can use the ADDIE model to develop training for staff, new hires, or other organizational stakeholders. As training continues to be an important skill for special librarians, using developed models for instructional design is a useful strategy.
Kurt, S. (2017). ADDIE model: Instructional design. Educational Technology. Retrieved from https://educationaltechnology.net/the-addie-model-instructional-design/
Hodell, C. (n.d.). All about ADDIE. Association for Talent Development. Retrieved from https://www.td.org/newsletters/atd-links/all-about-addie
ADDIE model. (n.d.). Instructionaldesign.org. Retrieved from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/models/addie/
Skills for special librarians include strategic research on library services, products, and policies in order to understand and serve stakeholders
Skills for special librarians who conduct training include leveraging the Kaufman Five Levels of Evaluation to assess instruction efficacy.
Skills for special librarians include leveraging technology like 360° videos, as training and orientations are increasingly virtual
Skills for special librarians including reflecting on prior experiences, keeping what works, and improving upon what doesn’t. Questions to ask.